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Biomes

Atlantic Forest

It is considered a high priority for conservation of biodiversity throughout the Americas. Is present along the atlantic coast of Brazil in over 17 states. This biome is composed of a series of very diverse habitats, influenced by the proximity of the coast, topography, soil types and rainfall regimes.

These characteristics are responsible for the evolution of a rich and lush forest complex, with approximately 20,000 plant species. The avifauna is also rich, 891 species with high levels of endemism, around 200 species are restricted to this biome.

Some representatives are: Blue-bellied Parrot (Triclaria malachitacea), Blue Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata), Frilled Coquete (Lophornis magnificus), Rufous-capped Momot (Baryphthengus ruficapillus), Black-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus falcularius).

Main Destinations: Ubatuba (SP), Itatiaia National Park (RJ), Serra do Mar State Park (SP), Boa Nova National Park (BA), Serra dos Órgãos National Park (RJ), Intervales State Park (SP), Superaqui National Park (PR), Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (SC).

atlantic forest
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos

Araucaria Forest

Considered by some the seventh brazilian biome is now critically endangered. With 3% of the original 200,000 square kilometers that were distributed in the South and Southeast where the atlantic forest is partly replaced by the araucaria forest. Natural formation of immense ecological importance because it is a transitional ecosystem between the dense atlantic rain forest and the southern fields.

The Brazilian pine-tree (Araucaria augustifolia) is the most prevalent among the aprox. 1,087 species of plants that feed and harbours around 180 species of birds.

Some representatives are: Striolated Tit-Spinetail, (Leptasthenura striolata), Araucaria Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura setaria), Vinaceous Parrot (Amazona vinacea), Azure Jay (Cyanocorax caeruleus), Red-spectacle Parrot (Amazona pretrei).

Main Destinations: Bom Jardim da Serra (SC), Araucárias National Park (SC), Campo dos Padres (SC), São Joaquim National Park (SC).

araucaria forest
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos

Pantanal

It is the largest floodplain in the world, which creates a rich biotic complex. Located in central-west Brazil, has about 3,500 plant species and the largest concentration of aquatic birds in the world.

Surrounded on one side by the amazon and by the other the cerrado makes pantanal a differentiated biome with rich diversity and much abundance. With 650 bird species cataloged is considered the paradise of birdwatchers. Receives thousands of tourists every year. Ranchers and farmers are surrendering to the benefits of this new and lucrative activity.

Some representatives are: Southern Screemer (Chauna torquata), Jabiru Stork (Jabiru mycteria), Plumbeous Ibis (Theristicus caerulescens), Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), Bearded Tachuri (Polystictus pectoralis), Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus).

Main Destinations: Porto Jofre (MT), Poconé (MT), Pantanal Mato-grossense National Park (MT), Coxim (MS), Aquidauana (MS), Miranda (MS), Pantanal do Rio Negro State Park (MS).

pantanal
Photo: Original Travel

Cerrado

Well distributed in central Brazil is surrounded and influenced also by other biomes. Compared to the african savanna, is our second most extensive biome, covering 10 states of Brazil.

With soil deficient in nutrients, but irrigated by large and important rivers: Tocantins, Araguaia, São Francisco and Prata favor a fantastic biodiversity, with approximately 20,000 plant species. Which today has been calculated be worth much more wisely preserved and exploited than devastated to create pasture for cattle. From the amazing 837 bird species, 12% are endemic.

Some representatives: Blue-and-gold Macaw (Ara ararauna), Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus), American Rhea (Rhea americana), Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco), Ochre-cheecked Spinetail (Synallaxis scutata).

Main Destinations: Chapada dos Guimarães National Park (MT), Chapada Diamantina National Park (BA), Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (GO), Emas National Park (GO), Jalapão (TO), Serra da Canastra National Park (MG), Bodoquena National Park (MS).

cerrado
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos

Caatinga Scrub

It is the only exclusively brazilian biome, occupying 7% of our territory. Two seasons dominate; drought when it resembles a desert with everything dry giving its name which means "white forest" in indian language. And on the rainy season life is renewed and its rich and characteristic vegetation (about 932 species) turns back to green. Favoring then around 510 bird species (many endemics) which return from their regional migration in search of food now abundant in this spectacular biome.

Some representatives are: Araripe Manakin (Antilophia bokermanni), Lear's Macaw (Anadorhynchus leari), Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii), Narrow-billed Antwren (Formicivora iheringi), Silvery-cheecked Antshrike (Sakesphorus cristatus).

Main Destinations: Chapada do Araripe (CE), Fortaleza (PE), Raso da Catarina Ecologic Station (BA), Serra da Capivara Naional Park (MA), Paulo Afonso (BA), Serra das Confusões National Park (PI).

caatinga scrub
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos

Amazon

Harbouring megadiversity and full of superlatives the world's largest rain forest has 60% of its distribution in northern Brazil. Which is cut by the world's largest river, the Amazon. And along with major tributaries such as the Tapajós, Madeira and Negro do form the largest river basin in the world.

Flooded during part of the year, this biome has different forest formations such as floodplains (igapó and várzea), wetlands and land forest (terra firme). With approximately 40,000 plant species provides countless habitats for the richest bird comunities on the planet (about 1,300 species). Which are well distributed over a large territory. That is, great diversity of species with few individuals per species.

Some representatives are: Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), Harpy Eagle (Harpia hapyja), Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias), Agami Heron (Agamia agami), Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus), Musician Wren (Ciphorhinus arada), Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin).

Main Destinations: Jaú National Park (AM), Alta Floresta (MT), Alter do Chão (PA), Anavilhanas Ecologic Station (AM), Belém (PA), Boa Vista (RR), Roraima National Park (RR), Carajás National Forest (PA), Marajó Island (MA), Manaus (AM), Tumucumaque Mountains National Park (AP), Pico da Neblina National Park (AM), Santarém (PA), Rio Branco (AC).

amazon
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos

Pampas or Southern Fields

Also known as pampas or altitude fields, averages to 1,200 m above sea level and is originally distributed by the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It consists of extensive flat fields covered by low vegetation with extensive open areas and few trees.

Distributed around the basin of the Prata river also has lots of wetlands and ponds. Making this ecosystem one of the best areas to observe aquatic birds. It has approximately 3000 plant species closely linked to 476 species of birds.

Some representatives are: Red-gartered Coot (Fulica armillata), Red-and-white Crake (Laterallus leucopyrrhus), Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch (Poospiza nigrorufa), Scarlet-headed Blackbird (Amblyramphus holocericeus).

Main Destinations: Urubici (SC), Aparados da Serra National Park (SC), Campo dos Padres (SC), Porto Alegre (RS), São Francisco de Paula (RS), São Joaquim National Park (SC), Serra Geral National Park (SC).

pampas
Photo: Britannica

Coastal Ecosystems

Brazil has the world's longest coastline in tropical regions, with about 8,000 kilometers of ancient environments and rich biodiversity. From the river mouth of the Oiapoque River (Amapá) to Chui River (Rio Grande do Sul). Closely linked to the atlantic ocean, these ecosystems are made up of different landscapes such as coastal dunes, beaches, islands, rocky shores, bays, cliffs, estuaries, mangroves and coral reefs.

Habitat of great diversity of seabirds, those that feed from the low tide line to the open sea. The approximate total of 111 species in Brazil, many are migratory and dependent on many of the 1,300 species of fish.

Some representatives are: Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus), Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus), American Oystercatcher (Haematopus Sunda), Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus).

Main Destinations: Lagoa do Peixe National Park (RS), Taim Ecologic Station (RS), Mostardas (RS), Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (RJ), Cabo Orange National Park (AP), Piratuba Biologic Reserve (AP), Abrolhos National Park (BA), Restinga de Bertioga State Park (SP).

coastal ecosystems
Photo: René Cardoso dos Santos